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References for issue 2

Issue 2: The Reign of Caracalla

Sidney Dean, “Peace in his time. Caracalla in Britain”

  • Caracalla (Altes Museum, Berlin)

    Cassius Dio, Roman History, Books 74-78. Transl. Earnest Cary, 1927

  • Herodian, History of the Roman Empire, Books 3-4. Transl. E. Echols, 1961.
  • A. Birley, The Roman Government of Britain (2005)
  • D. Breeze, Roman Scotland (1996)
  • J. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795 (2009)
  • P. Salway, A History of Roman Britain (1997)

Murray Dahm, “The Constitutio Antoniniana”

  • Herbert W. Benario, “The Dediticii of the Constitutio Antoniniana” in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 85 (1954) 188-196.
  • F. M. Heichelheim, “The Text of the Constitutio Antoniniana and the Three Other Decrees of the Emperor Caracalla Contained in Papyrus Gissensis 40” in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 26 (1941) 10-22.
  • H. M. Jones, “Another Interpretation of the ‘Constitutio Antoniniana” in:The Journal of Roman Studies 26 (1936) 223-235.
  • Paul Keresztes, “The Constitutio Antoniniana and the Persecutions under Caracalla”, in: The American Journal of Philology 91 (1970) 446-459.
  • Fergus Millar “The Date of the Constitutio Antoniniana”, in: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 48 (1962) 124-131.
  • Colin Wells, Roman Empire (1995)
  • N. Sherwin White, The Roman Citizenship (Second Edition, 1973).

Christian Koepfer, “In search for a cure. Caracalla and Apollo Grannus”

Oliver Hoover, “Caracalla and the Advice of Septimius Severus as Reflected in the Coinage”

  • Fig. 1. Gold aureus of Septimius Severus. New York, ANS 1959.228.33.
  • Fig. 2. Gold aureus of Septimius Severus. Triton XVII (7 January 2014), lot 745.
  • Fig. 3. Bronze coin of Amasia, Pontus, under Caracalla. Roma Numismatics E-sale 18 (27 June 2015), lot 677.
  • Fig. 4. Bronze coin of Thyatira, Lydia under Septimius Severus. Art Coins Roma 5 (14 May 2012), lot 599.
  • Fig. 5. Silver denarius of Caracalla, AD 211. CNG Electronic Auction 329 (25 June 2014, lot 489.
  • Fig. 6.Bronze coin of Stratonicaea, Caria, with image of Geta reased. New York, ANS 1967.15.461.
  • Fig. 7. Bronze coin of Pergamon, Mysia, with image of Geta erased. New York, ANS 1971.230.20.
  • Fig. 8. Silver denarius of Caracalla. New York, ANS 1944.100.51510.
  • Fig. 9. Debased silver antoninianus of Caracalla. New York, ANS 1944.100.51525.
  • Fig. 10. Debased silver Syrian tetradrachm of Caracalla struck at Tyre. CNG Electronic Auction 357 (12 August 2015), lot 294.
  • Fig. 11. Debased silver Syrian tetradrachm of Nero struck at Antioch. CNG Electronic Auction 360 (30 September 2015), lot 250.
  • Fig. 12. Silver tetradrachm of Ptolemy II struck at Tyre. CNG 75 (23 May 2007), lot 563.
  • Fig. 13. Debased silver denarius of Caracalla depicting Liberalitas. CNG Electronic Auction 343 (28 January 2015), lot 496.
  • Fig. 14. Bronze coin of Philippopolis, Thrace, under Caracalla depicting the emperor as Alexander the Great. Nomos AG 11 (9 October 2015), lot 189.
  • Fig. 15. Debased silver antoninianus of Caracalla depicting Sol. Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH 262 (13 March 2015), lot 8172.

Paul van der Heijden, “A face for Caracalla”

  • Archäologisches Landesmuseum Baden Würtenberg (red.). Caracalla. Kaiser, Tyrann, Feldherr (2013).
  • Canter, H. “Personal Appearance in the Biography of the Roman Emperors”, in: Studies in Philology 25 (1928). 385-399.
  • Hekster, O. Romeinse keizers. De macht van het imago (2009)
  • Leander Touati, A.-M., “Portrait and historical relief. Some remarks on the meaning of Caracalla’s sole ruler portrait”, iIn: A.M. Leander Touati, E. Rystedt & O. Wikander (red.). Munuscula Romana (1991) 117-131.
  • Mennen, I. “The image of an emperor in trouble. Legitimation and representation of power by Caracalla”, in: L. de Blois, P. Funke, J. Hahn (red.). The Impact of Imperial Rome on Religions, Ritual and Religious Life in the Roman Empire. Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (2006)
  • Mennen, I. Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284. Impact of Empire 12 (2011).

Sadi Maréchal, “The Baths of Caracalla”

  • E. Brödner, Untersuchungen an den Caracallathermen (1951)
  • M. Blonski, Se nettoyer à Rome. IIe avant J.-C. -IIe s. après J.-C. Pratiques et enjeux, Études Anciennes 77 (2014).
  • M. G. Cecchini, “Terme di Carcalla. Campagna di scavo 1982/1983 lungo il lato orientale”, in: A. M. Bietti Sestieri, (ed.), Roma Archeologia nel Centro II: la «città murata» (1985) 588-594.
  • J. DeLaine, “Bathing and Society”, in: J. DeLaine, and D. E. Johnston (eds.), Roman baths and bathing : proceedings of the first International Conference on Roman Baths held at Bath, England, 30 March - 4 April 1992, Journal of Roman Archaeology. Supplemenatry Series. 37 (1999) 7-16.
  • J. DeLaine, The Baths of Caracalla, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplemenatry Series 25 (1997).
  • G.G. Fagan, Bathing in Public in the Roman World (1999)
  • L. Lombardi and A. Corrazza, Le Terme di Caracalla (1985)
  • M. Marvin, “Freestanding sculptures from the Baths of Caracalla”, in; American Journal of Archaeology 87 (1983) 347-384.

Diana Kretschmann, “Immigrant or valued resident?”

  • Baba, K., “On Kerameikos Inv. I 388 (SEG XXII, 79): a note on the formation of the Athenian metic status”, The Annual of the British School at Athens 79 (1984) 1-5
  • Papadopoulos, J.K. and E.L. Smithson, “The cultural biography of a Cycladic geometric amphora. Islanders in Athens and the prehistory of metics”, Hesperia 71 (2002) 149-199.
  • Whitehead, D., The ideology of the Athenian metic (Cambridge 1977).
  • Wijma, S., Embracing the immigrant. The participation of metics in Athenian polis religion (5th-4th century BC) (Franz Steiner Verlag; Stuttgart 2014).
  • Willemsen, F., “Archaische Grabmalbasen aus der Athener Stadtmauer”, Athenische Mitteilungen 78 (1963) 104-153.

Alexander Smarius, “The Scillitan Martyrs”

Text, translations and commentaries

  • The full Latin text can be found here and there. A translation with commentary is here. Bible quotations from the New International Version.
  • A.A.R. Bastiaensen, A. Hilhorst e.a. (ed.), Atti e Passioni dei Martiri (1987)
  • Herbert Musurillo, The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (1972)
  • A. Smarius, “Rome versus de christenen: de zaak tegen de christenen uit Scilli”, in: Lampas 42/1 (2009)


  • Gillian Clark, Christianity and Roman Society (2004)

Modern-day parallel

  • C.C. McCown, “Conscience vs. The State”, in: California Law Review 32/1 (1944) 1-30.
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “Jehovah’s Witnesses: Article” (Accessed on 10 January 2016).

Mark DeSantis, “The Uluburun Ship”

  • Aruz, Joan, et al. eds., Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C., The Metropolitan Museum of Art (2008)
  • Bass, George F., Beneath the Seven Seas (2005)
  • Casson, Lionel, The Ancient Mariners (Second edition1991)
  • Hawass, Zahi, Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs (2005)
  • James, T.G.H., Pharaoh’s People: Scenes from Life in Imperial Egypt (1984)
  • Pulak, Cemal, The Uluburun Shipwreck and late Bronze Age Trade, in: Aruz (2008) 289-305.
  • Pulak, Cemal, Discovering a Royal Ship from the Age of King Tut: Uluburun, Turkey, in Bass (2005) 34-47.
  • Wachsmann, Shelley, Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant (1998)
  • Wood, Adrian K., Warships of the Ancient World 3000-500 BC (2012)

Casper Porton, How do they know? Pronouncing Latin

  • W. Sydney Allen, Vox Latina. The pronunciation of classical Latin (1965)
  • Learning to speak Latin? Visit the author’s website! ADDISCO
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