References for issue 1

Jona Lendering, Exploring the world

A nice introduction to the world outside the Mediterranean is N.H. Sitwell, The World the Romans Knew (1984), which offers an overview of all those nations in the periphery of the classical world: the African kingdoms, Arabia, the world of the Parthians and Sasanians, India, and finally China.

Edwin de Vries, Eudoxus of Cyzicus

The primary source for this piece is Strabo’s Geography, of which an accessible translation is D.W. Roller’s The Geography of Strabo (2014), although I preferred the Greek transcript from S. Radt’s Strabons Geographika (2002). A detailed, although somewhat outdated study of Eudoxos in particular is provided in J.H. Thiel’s Eudoxos van Cyzicus (1939). Other literature includes:

  • Casson, L. (ed.), 1989, The Periplus Maris Erythraei, Text with introduction, translation, and commentary.
  • Sidebotham, S.E., 2011, Berenike and the ancient maritime spice route.

Owen Rees, Mapping it out

Ancient notions about geography and ethnography have been discussed by J. Romm, The Edges of the Earth in Ancient Thought: Geography, Exploration, and Fiction (1992). More specific about Herodotus’ world map is D. Branscome, “Herodotus and the Map of Aristagoras” in Classical Antiquity, 29:1 (2010), pp. 1-44. Other literature includes

  • O. Kimball Armayor, “Did Herodotus Ever Go to the Black Sea?”, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 82 (1978), pp. 45-62.
  • S. West, “Herodotus’ Portrait of Hecataeus”, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 111 (1991), pp. 144-160.

Judith Weingarten, Journeying to the Land of Punt

Some additional literature to the article:

  • Cooney, K., The Woman Who Would Be King: Hatshepsuts Rise to Power in Ancient Egypt (2014; novel)
  • Roehrig, C.H. e.a. (eds.), Hatshepsut : from Queen to Pharaoh (2005; free download)
  • Tyldesley, J., Hatshepsut: the Female Pharaoh (1996, paperback 1998)
  • Ward, C., Building pharaoh’s ships: Cedar, incense and sailing the Great Green (British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 18, 2012; free download)

The blog of the author, Judith Weingarten, can be found here. She discussed several aspects which were also dealth with in this article:

A short report about the baboon mummy rests that revealed Ethiopia and Eritrea as the ancient Land of Punt was published on the Archaeology News Network.

Sidney E. Dean, How low did they go?


  • Pliny, Natural History, Books 5-6
  • Ptolemy, Geography, Book 4
  • Seneca, Naturales Quaestiones, Book 6

Secondary literature

  • E. Buckley and M. Dinter, A Companion to the Neronian Age (2013)
  • R. Jackson, At Empire’s Edge: Exploring Rome’s Egyptian Frontier (2002)
  • L. Kirwan, “Rome Beyond the Southern Egyptian Frontier”, The Geographical Journal 123/1 (March 1957), pp. 13-19
  • S. Raven, Rome in Africa, London 1993
  • G. Vantini, “Il Nilo di Nerone”, in Nigrizia, March 1996

Murray Dahm, Hanno’s Periplus

  • A translation of the text of Hanno’s Periplus is here.
  • The most recent discussion of Hanno’s journey is W.F.G. Lacroix in the fourth appendix of his Africa in Antiquity. A linguistic and toponymic analysis of Ptolemy’s map of Africa (1998 Saarbrücken).
  • Jerôme Carcopino, Le Maroc Antique (1943), pp. 74-163
  • C. Kaeppel, Off the Beaten Track in Classics (1936).
  • W. H. Schoff, The Periplus of Hanno (1912)

Daan Nijssen, The Median Dark Age

  • Barfield, T.J., Bondarenko, D.M. & Kradin, N.N. (eds.) (2003): Civilization Dimension Vol. 5 – Nomadic pathways in social evolution
  • Brown, S.C. (1986): “Media and Secondary State Formation in the Neo-Assyrian Zagros” in: Journal of Cuneiform Studies Vol. 38.1, pp. 107-119
  • Brown, S.C. (1988): “The Medikos Logos of Herodotus and the Evolution of the Median State” in: Achaemenid History III: Method and Theory, pp. 71-86
  • Claessen, H.J.M. & Skalník, P. (eds.) (1978): The Early State, pp. 533-596
  • Goff, C. (1969): “Excavations at Baba Jan, 1967: Second Preliminary Report” in: Iran. Vol. 7, British Institute of Persian Studies, pp. 115-130
  • Goff, C. (1977): “Excavations at Baba Jan: The Architecture of the East Mound, Levels II and III” in: Iran. Vol. 15, British Institute of Persian Studies, pp. 103-150
  • Goff, C. (1985): “Excavations at Baba Jan: The Architecture and Pottery of Level I” in: Iran. Vol. 23, British Institute of Persian Studies, pp. 1-20
  • Grinin, L.E., e.a. (eds.) (2004): The Early State, Its Alternatives and Analogues
  • Helm, P.R. (1981): “Herodotus’ Medikos Logos and Median History” in: Iran. Vol. 19, British Institute of Persian Studies, pp. 85-90
  • Kradin, N.N. (2005): “From Tribal Confederation to Empire: The Evolution of the Rouran Society”, in Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientarum Hungaricae Vol. 5 – Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Mediaeval History of the Eurasian Steppe, pp.  149-169
  • Lanfranchi, G.B. e.a. (eds.) (2003): Continuity of Empire (?) Assyria, Media, Persia
  • Liverani, M. (1995): “The Medes at Esarhaddon’s Court” in: Journal of Cuneiform Studies 47, pp. 57-62
  • Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H. (1988): “Was there ever a Median Empire?” in: Achaemenid History III: Method and Theory, pp.  197-212
  • Sancisi-Weerdenburg, H. (1994): “The Orality of Herodotus’ Medikos Logos or: the Median empire revisited” in: Achaemenid History VIII: Continuity and Change, pp.  39-55
  • Stronach, D. & Roaf, M. (2007): Nush-i Jan, I: The Major Buildings of the Median Settlement
  • Young, T.C. (1967): “The Iranian Migration into the Zagros” in: Iran. Vol. 5, British Institute of Persian Studies, pp. 11-34.
  • Young, T.C. (1969): Excavations at Godin Tepe: First Progress Report, Royal Ontario Museum of Art and Archaeology, Occasional Paper 17
  • Young, T.C. & Levine, L.D. (1974): Excavations of the Godin Project: Second Progress Report, Royal Ontario Museum of Art and Archaeology, Occasional Paper 26
  • Zadok, R. (2002): “The Ethno-linguistic Character of Northwestern Iran and Kurdistan in the Neo-Assyrian Period” in: Iran. Vol. 40, British Institute of Persian Studies, pp. 89-151

Lucas Petit, Authentic of Fake?

  • Belleli, G.M. (1983), Placca decorativa di arredo sacro dell’Iran nord-occidentale. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 16
  • Mishara, J. and P. Meyers (1974), Technical Examination of a Bronze Iranian Beaker. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 78, No. 3: 252-254
  • Moorey, P.R.S. (1971), Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford
  • Muscarella, O.W. (1974), Decorated bronze Beakers from Iran. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 78, No. 3: 239-252
  • Muscarella, O.W. (2000), The Lie Became Great: The Forgery of Ancient Near Eastern Cultures. Leiden
  • Petit, L.P. (2013), Het oude Nabije Oosten. Een paradijs voor verzamelaars en wetenschappers

Mark McCaffery, The Vigiles

  • H. V. Canter, “Conflagrations in Ancient Rome”, The Classical Journal 27/4 (1932) pp.270-288
  • A. Goldsworthy, Augustus: From Revolutionary to Emperor (2014)

Nicola Bergamo, Porphyrius

There’s one book about Porphyrius, written by Alan Cameron: Porphyrius the Charioteer. Published in 1973, it is still the best treatment of the subject. The inscriptions have been published in 1948 by A.A. Vasiliev, “The Monument of Porphyrius in the Hippodrome at Constantinople”, in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 4, 27-49. Photos of the hippodrome can be found here.

Christian Koepfer, Essimnus

  • The inscription has been published in L’Année Épigraphique 1984, 707 and in the catalogue Die Römer zwischen Alpen und Nordmeer (2000), p.361, nr. 96.
  • H. Wolff, “Grabmäler und Inschriftenfunde in Passau im Jahre 1980/81”, in: Bayerische Vorgeschichtsblätter 49 (1984) pp. 87-92.
  • Good photos of the stone are at Ubi Erat Lupa.

Related Posts