Ancient Warfare IV.5

Format:Print edition
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In the ancient world, religion permeated almost all aspects of life. Because warfare was a fundamental part of existing and surviving for many societies, waging war was also a deeply religious affair. Kings, generals, soldiers: all imagined the presence of the gods on the battlefield, and let their strategic decisions be guided by priests and oracles.

Theme: Fighting for the gods - Warfare and religion

  • P.Lindsay Powell, 'Introduction to the theme'
  • Paul Elliott, 'Inside a temple of Mithras'
  • Owen Rees, 'Sparta Refuses to fight - Pious inaction during the Persian invasions'
  • Corrado Re, 'Consular suicide - The practicalities of devotio'
  • Christopher Lilley, 'Epona in Roman service - Military worship of a horse goddess'
  • Mark Woolmer, '"In the name of Ahuramazda" - Darius' wars against the Elamites and Scythians'
  • Alberto Pérez, 'Off with their heads! Headhunting and scalping in antiquity'
  • Jona Lendering, 'Alexander the invincible god - Uniting a diverse army through deification'
  • Sidney Dean, 'The Frankish Constantine - Clovis' conversion at Tolbiac'
  • Paul McDonnell-Staff, 'The weapon: Religion and the late Roman shield'


  • Duncan B. Campbell, 'The debate: The fate of IX Hispana'

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